James Francis Edward Stuart: The Old Pretender

The Old Pretender was a pessimist living in exile whose attempt to claim the English, Scottish and Irish thrones failed in The Fifteen Jacobite rising. James Francis Edward was born 10 June 1688 amidst the warming-pan scandal. He fled with his mother, Mary Beatrice of Modena, to France when William of Orange’s invasion led to…

The Glorious Revolution

The foundations for Britain's constitutional monarchy were laid when James II was forced to abdicate in favour of William III and Mary II. The origins of the Glorious Revolution, also known as the War of the English Succession or the Bloodless Revolution, began with the conflicts during Charles I’s reign which led to the Civil…

The Restoration: Charles II and His Kingdoms

Charles II made his triumphant royal entry into London to reclaim his three kingdoms on 29 May 1660. Many who welcomed the Restoration were soon disappointed.The Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell enjoyed stability since Charles I’s beheading in January 1649. However, Cromwell died on 3 September 1658 after a short period of illness.AnarchyRichard succeeded his father…

The Great Plague of London

The Great Plague was the biggest epidemic since the Black Death, as one-sixth of London’s population perished as the wealthy fled to their country estates. The Bubonic Plague was first reported in Great Yarmouth in November 1663 – allegedly imported from Holland in bales of merchandise. The disease was carried by flea-ridden rats. People were…

Rebuilding London After The Great Fire

A massive rebuilding programme took place after London’s Great Fire in 1666 and took about fifty years to complete. The Great Fire destroyed three-quarters of the medieval city within one week, creating a damage bill estimated at nearly £10 million. The ground was too hot to walk on until the rains began on 11 September.…

The Great Fire of London: The Dreadful Judgement

The Great Fire of London destroyed most of the medieval city within days. Some believed it was God’s judgement upon a sinful city, including Charles II’s debauched court. London was gripped by drought lasting from November 1665 to September 1666 – a cold dry winter followed by a prolonged hot summer. The water cisterns’ levels…

Oliver Cromwell: The Republic Leader The ARM Never Mention on ANZAC Day

NPG 514; Oliver Cromwell after Samuel Cooper

Britain's former war-veteran-turned Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell was born on 25 April. In Australia, every Anzac Day, the Australian Republic Movement, notably Peter FitzSimons, usually raise the issue of Australia becoming a republic. Yet they never mention Britain's Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell whose birthday is also commemorated as Anzac Day in Australia, New Zealand and the…