Louis Mountbatten: 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, Viceroy of India

British naval officer Lord Louis Mountbatten accepted the Japanese surrender during World War II. He was the last Viceroy of India, and also mentor to Prince Charles. Mountbatten, known as “Dickie” to family and friends, was born Louis Francis Albert Victor Nicholas on 25 June 1900 at Frogmore House, Windsor. His parents were Prince Louis…

The Coronation of Elizabeth I: The Virgin Queen

Elizabeth I’s Coronation was a grand spectacle intimately involving her subjects where she combined grandeur with the common touch. It was also a personal success. Mary I died from influenza on 17 November 1558, ending her dream to restore Catholicism to England. Elizabeth faced serious allegations of treason, even death, during her sister’s reign. Elizabeth…

Anne of Cleves: Henry VIII’s Fourth Wife

Henry VIII married Anne of Cleves to form a new alliance after relations between England, France and the Holy Roman Empire deteriorated. They divorced six months later. Anne was born on 22 September 1515 in Düsseldorf, Cleves. She was the second of four children born to John III ‘the Pacific’, Duke of Cleves, and Maria…

Scotland’s Fight For Independence: William Wallace and Robert The Bruce

William Wallace won a dramatic victory against the English in 1297. The large, well-equipped and arrogant English army were annihilated by Wallace’s men—a mere rabble. Robert the Bruce continued the fight for independence. English intervention began after Alexander III’s death in 1286. Alexander’s young granddaughter Margaret—the Maid of Norway—was his sole heir. She died en-route…

Anne Neville

Anne Neville survived the political machinations of the Wars of the Roses, two marriages and died of tuberculosis, as Richard III deeply mourned her loss. She was born at Warwick Castle on 11 June 1456, the younger daughter of Richard Neville, the 16th Earl of Warwick—the great 'King-maker'—and Anne Beauchamp, a wealthy heiress. She spent…

The Princes In The Tower: The Mystery Surrounding Edward IV’s Sons

Edward V and his brother Richard, Duke of York, are best-known in history as “the Princes in the Tower” since the 15th Century. Their deaths still remain a great mystery. Twelve-year-old Edward V was proclaimed King on 11 April 1483, two days after his father’s death. Edward IV died unexpectedly after he caught a chill…

Margaret of Anjou: Queen Consort of Henry VI of England

Margaret of Anjou is best remembered as a vengeful and ambitious woman who brought war and misery to England. She also participated in one of the bloodiest civil wars. Margaret of Anjou was born 23 March 1430 at Pont-a-Mousson, Lorraine. She was the second daughter born to René of Anjou and Isabelle of Lorraine. René…

Phillipa of Hainault: Queen Consort of Edward III of England

Philippa of Hainault and Edward III brought stability to the monarchy after his father’s disastrous reign. She was interested in education, art and literature. She was often portrayed as “bourgeois”—solid, comfortable and domestic—as her homely features and motherly figure are captured in Master Hennequin of Liège's fine alabaster effigy on her tomb. Her great amiability…

George II of Great Britain (1727-1760)

George II was the last British monarch to lead troops into battle, whilst many great social and political changes occurred during his reign. He was born Georg August on 30 October 1683 at Herrenhausen Palace, Hanover, the eldest of two children born to Crown Prince Georg of Hanover and Sophia Dorothea of Celle. His sister…

The Restoration: Charles II and His Kingdoms

Charles II made his triumphant royal entry into London to reclaim his three kingdoms on 29 May 1660. Many who welcomed the Restoration were soon disappointed. The Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell enjoyed stability since Charles I’s beheading in January 1649. However, Cromwell died on 3 September 1658 after a short period of illness. Anarchy Richard…